Ensuring Quality in Elevators, Prof. Dr. İrfan Yükler
- Elevators are indispensable due to the convenience they provide to human life today, and it is a means of transportation that is increasing in use due to the growth of the construction industry.
- In our country, there are 477,386 elevators in buildings with building registration and approximately 800,000 elevators in total, including elevators in buildings without building use permits.
- Since the average heights of the buildings built in our big cities are constantly increasing, more than 50 000 new elevators join this number every year.
- The world's largest third elevator market is Turkey. Our country comes after China and India in elevator production and consumption.
- It is possible to classify the produced elevators as human, load, stretcher, panoramic and service elevators. Human lifts are used in shopping malls, hotels and residences.
- These elevators have the capacity to carry 3-20 people depending on where they are used. Their speed is between 0.40-2.50 meters/second.
- As elevator speeds increase, security systems requirements increase. The doors of human lifts are made semi-automatic or fully automatic.
- While the buildings had only human elevators in the past, as the building floor height increased to numbers like 60, a load elevator is also required to be installed in high-rise buildings.
- Freight elevators are a type of elevator that is used to carry the loads to be carried with the carrier staff. These elevators are designed according to the load capacity they will carry.
- Insufficiency in the safety devices of old elevators in our buildings and the increase in the use of high-rise buildings and faster elevators brought security problems together. Regular maintenance and periodic checks must be made legally necessary to overcome these security problems and ensure the safety of passengers and employees in the elevator industry.
- The increase in the number of elevators and not caring the maintenance process as required because of the frequency of maintenance that have to be performed, caused an increase in the number of elevator accidents.
- These accidents occur during the assembly, maintenance and service of elevators.
- For example, the number of people who died in elevator accidents in our country in 2013 was more than the number of deaths in the total of all European Union member countries.
main causes of accidents that occur in elevator assembly and maintenance works are;
- Not taking the measures that are necessary for working at high levels.
- Uncontrolled movements of the elevator cage up and down from time to time,
- Presence of cutting and piercing parts on the inner surface of the well,
- Employment of uncertified, unskilled workers in unauthorized companies,
- Improper workwear worn by the workers that locks on to the rotating parts,
- Jamming and crushing caused by insufficient protection of rotating parts,
- Accidents caused by entrance of unauthorized persons to the engine room,
- Insufficient distances above the rotating parts
The main causes of accidents resulting in death are rope breakage, no cabin doors, problematic floor door locks and uncontrolled cabin movements.
- European Union members have started to use EN 81-20 and EN 81-50 standards for elevators as of August 31, 2017. The new standards aim to make elevators safer for users, maintenance/inspection personnel. Our country tries to adapt itself to European standards in order to become a member of the European Union.
- As the new standards are applied correctly, our country's elevators will become safer for all of us. However, stakeholders of the elevator industry, people, institutions, companies that are in contact with the elevator somewhere in their business or private life are not prepared enough to use and apply the new standards.
- Turkey has three types of firms in the elevator industry. These are; elevator parts producing factories, firms engaged in assembly or contracting, and firms engaged in maintenance and/or repair.
- However, working field of assembly companies and maintenance companies is intertwined in our country. This leads to limitations in the development of experience in the working field.
- The number working staff in more than 80% of the elevator companies in Turkey varies between 2-10. This indicates that there are no full-time engineers and technicians in many workplaces.
- The qualifications of workers are also not high. There is a shortage of personnel with technical competence in every branch of the sector and at all levels.
- In order to ensure the desired level of quality in elevators, it is very important to perform the assembly carefully, not to interrupt the necessary maintenance and repair processes and to use quality parts.
- A notebook should be kept during the maintenance and repair work. In this notebook, there are some notes about the elevator. This notebook should be kept in a safe place by the building authority. Performing these is important not only to ensure quality but also to safety.
- In this process, these must be done carefully and also the intervention of a professional team is also necessary. Possessing the necessary experience and knowledge is very important in this process.
Release date: 05.05.2018